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你不一定知道的万圣节冷知识,真的很冷!
来源:21英语网    日期: 2014-10-29

万圣节来了,你只了解它是个提灯要糖、各种奇葩装泛滥的日子吗?800年前的万圣节,人们都是怎么过的?曾经的万圣节还有相亲的功能,宅男剩女你们造吗?世纪君为你准备了有关万圣节的N个冷知识,留着万圣节看,真的好冷!

You may already think that Halloween is a pretty bizarre holiday: What other celebration could inspire both a Sexy Olaf costume and spooky drones? Chances are you really have no idea just how weird Halloween truly is, so here are eight facts to fix that...

1. 想要糖果?先跳段舞吧!
Originally, you had to dance for your “treat”.


现在的万圣节,小盆友们一句“不招待就使坏(trick or treat)” 便能欢脱地搞来一堆糖果。不过,这个游戏最早可不是这么玩哒!欧洲的小伙伴们曾经不仅要穿戴打扮好,还要精心准备歌舞表演,这才能换来别人家的美味。另有相传“不招待就使坏”曾经跟乞讨木有差,穷人家的孩子挨家挨户乞讨要钱,结果土豪熊孩子也跟着来捣乱了……

Most experts trace trick-or-treating to the European practice of “mumming”, or “guysing”, in which costume-wearing participants would go door-to-door performing choreographed dances, songs and plays in exchange for treats. In some early versions of trick-or-treating, men paraded door-to-door, and boys often followed, begging for coins. Most of these early trick-or-treaters were poor and actually needed the money, but wealthy children also joined in the fun.

2. 万圣节起源于爱尔兰
Halloween is more Irish than St. Patrick's Day.


万圣节起源于凯尔特人的“萨温节”。每到这一天,凯尔特人会穿上特别的服装并在自家门口摆放祭品来抚慰游荡的鬼魂。虽然这个习俗形成前,并非只有爱尔兰有凯尔特人居住。但南瓜灯确实是爱尔兰的凯尔特人发明的。后来,万圣节的模式被基督教传教士发扬光大,逐渐成形。这样说来,万圣节可要比后来演变成爱尔兰国庆节的圣帕特里克节还要本土接地气呢!因为就连圣帕特里克本人也不能完全算是爱尔兰人。

Halloween's origins come from a Celtic festival for the dead called “Samhain”. Celts believed the ghosts of the dead roamed Earth on this holiday, so people would dress in costumes and leave "treats" out on their front doors to appease the roaming spirits. Granted, the Celts were not solely based in Ireland when these customs started taking shape around the first century B.C., but as will be talked about more in a later section, the Irish Celts were the ones who invented the jack-o'-lantern. This Halloween prototype was eventually disrupted and adapted by Christian missionaries into celebrations closer to what we celebrate today, including partly by the not-Irish St. Patrick, whose work was later mostly recognized by Americans.

3. 古代有逼格的万圣节,动物的头和毛皮是理想装备
If you'd been around for the earliest Halloween celebrations, you might have worn animal skins and heads.


根据古罗马文献记载,曾经在现在德国与法国一代生存过的部落,会穿戴动物的头和毛皮与逝者的灵魂来个深度交流,这种习俗一直延续到“萨温节”——美国万圣节的前身。

According to ancient Roman records, tribes located in today's Germany and France traditionally wore costumes of animal heads and skins to connect to spirits of the dead. This tradition continued into modern day celebrations of Samhain, the Celtic holiday that inspired Halloween in America.

4. 空心南瓜灯曾经不是南瓜做的
Jack-o'-lanterns were once made out of turnips, beets and potatoes -- not pumpkins.

南瓜灯来源于一个古老的爱尔兰民间故事——吝啬鬼杰克。杰克曾经巧妙地欺骗了魔鬼。所以当他死后,上帝不待见他,魔鬼也不能摄取他的灵魂,他只好端着灯笼,游走人间。根据这个传说,爱尔兰人在萝卜、甜菜头或土豆上刻上可怕的鬼脸来驱赶杰克或其他的鬼魂。

The jack-o'-lantern comes from an old Irish tale about a man named Stingy Jack. He once tricked the Devil. When Jack finally died, God decided he wasn't fit for heaven, but the Devil had promised never to claim his soul for hell. So Jack was sent off to roam Earth with only a burning coal for light. He put the coal into a turnip as a lantern, and Stingy Jack became "Jack of the Lantern" or “Jack o' Lantern”. Based on this myth, the Irish carved scary faces into turnips, beets and potatoes to scare away Stingy Jack or any other spirits of the night.

5. 万圣节曾是寻找灵魂伴侣的好日子
Halloween used to be a great day to find your soulmate.


发愁找不着对象的帅锅美女们,好消息来了!再也不用在情人节抱怨自己有多惨了,因为万圣节也是单身男女不能错过的好日子!在爱尔兰的部分地区,人们会在当天玩算命的游戏,测算自己的真命天子/天女。而如今在美国,一些青年男女还会沿袭传统,在这一天玩咬苹果的游戏。

In some parts of Ireland, people celebrated Halloween by playing romantic fortune-telling games. These games allegedly predicted who they'd marry, and when. Since Halloween, like Valentine's Day, was one of the main celebrations of the year where young people could mingle with the opposite sex, it was also considered a good day to scope out a sweetheart. In America, young people, particularly girls, continued the old Irish tradition. Games, like bobbing for apples, tried to predict future romances.

6. 美国一些小镇,万圣节只是“卷心菜之夜”
In a few American towns, Halloween was originally referred to as "Cabbage Night."


在苏格兰的算命游戏中,妹纸们会用卷心菜来预测未来夫婿。不过这款游戏到了美国之后就渐渐变味了,熊孩子们跳过算命的过程,直接把菜扔到邻居家里。当然,扔玉米和其他烂菜的也有……

This came from a Scottish fortune-telling game, where girls used cabbage stumps to predict information about their future husbands. In the early Framingham, Massachusetts, teens skipped the fortune-telling and simply went around throwing cabbage at their neighbors' houses. This was no isolated tradition: In late 19th century America, country boys reportedly rejoiced in throwing cabbage, corn and assorted rotten vegetables.

7. 黑色喵星人在万圣节受保护了
Some animal shelters won't allow the adoption of black cats around Halloween for fear they'll be sacrificed.


由于担心黑猫在万圣节会被当做祭品,国外的很多动物收容所在万圣节前都会拒绝人们来领养黑猫。不过最近,这种担忧已经逐渐减少了,一些收容所放宽了要求,甚至会在万圣节前后专门为黑猫找个温暖的家。

It's unclear whether black cats are actually sacrificed around Halloween, but various animal shelters refuse to let people adopt these cats in the lead-up to the holiday because of superstition and the concern that the wrong people (who might harm them) might adopt them.

This type of ban is starting to wane, however. When reached for comment, Emily Weiss, vice president of Shelter Research and Development at the ASPCA, said, "Years ago, this used to be pretty common -- that shelters would not adopt out cats during Halloween for fear of something horrible happening to the cats, but we don't hear too much anymore. And many, many shelters are actually [holding] a special black cat promotion around the holiday."

8. 研究发现万圣节培养了更多熊孩子
Studies have shown that Halloween actually makes kids act more evil.


让小孩纸穿上万圣节搞怪装组团去捣蛋,很可能会让他们淡化自己的责任。他们不会关心个人行为所带来的后果,以至于制造各种事端。如果缺乏监管,隐藏在万圣节糖衣下的熊孩子很可能会更加肆无忌惮。

Putting costume-wearing kids into groups and introducing a clear object of desire, such as candy, has been shown to lead to “deindividuation”. This psychological term explains what happens when a group of maturing young minds begins to care less about the consequences of their individual actions, leading them to do things that they might not do alone.

 





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