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How to talk about gender expression

这些性别表达你真的知道么?

中文 英文 双语 2015-06-15    来源:21st Century      阅读数:125127
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导读:他,还是她?性别并不只是男女那么简单,并不是所有人心中的性别都恰好和自己的生理性别相一致,如何正确地表达性别,这一直都是个问题……

A gorgeous woman with long wavy brown hair graces the cover of the forthcoming July issue of glossy magazine Vanity Fair. Meet Caitlyn Jenner, 65, a US Olympic athlete and TV personality formerly known as Bruce Jenner. Jenner, US reality television star Kim Kardashian’s stepmother and former stepfather, is one of the stars in reality TV show Keeping Up With the Kardashians. But this was the first time she has been photographed as a woman since she came out as transgender in April.
她一头棕色长卷发,性感动人,令(美国)时尚杂志《名利场》7月的封面变得熠熠夺目;她就是今年65岁的凯特琳•詹纳,原名布鲁斯•詹纳,美国前奥运冠军、电视名人;他还是美国真人秀(《与卡戴珊姐妹同行》)明星金•卡戴珊的继父,不过现在应该称为“继母”。 自今年4月完成变性手术后,这是她首次以女性的身份参与拍摄工作。

Jenner’s coming-out is a big moment in US pop culture history. As Western countries like the US have become more socially liberal, transgender people have become less marginalized. So how can you talk about transgender people and related issues without being offensive? GLAAD, a US organization aiming to improve representation of those who identify as LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender) in the media, offers guidelines.
詹纳的出现是美国流行文化史上的一个重要时刻。随着美国等西方国家社会自由度的不断提高,跨性别者(变性人)越来越少受到排斥。当谈论到跨性别者或与其相关的话题时,如何表达才能不冒犯到他人?美国一家致力于为LGBT(同性恋、双性恋与跨性别者)人群发声的组织GLAAD给出了如下建议:

Basic concepts
基本概念

Gender Identity
性别认同

One’s deeply held sense of one’s gender. For transgender people, their own gender identity does not match their sex. Most people have a gender identity of male or female. For some people, gender identity does not fit neatly into these two choices.
性别认同指每个人对自己性别根深蒂固的认识。跨性别者即自我性别认同与生理性别不匹配。大部分人的性别认同不是男性就是女性,但也有一些人对自己的性别认同超出了男女的范围。

Gender Expression
性别表达

External manifestations of gender expressed through one’s name, pronouns, clothing, haircut, behavior, voice, or body characteristics. Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine. Typically, transgender people seek to make their gender expression align with their gender identity, rather than the sex they were born as.
外在的性别表达包括:姓名、称呼、穿着、发型、行为举止、声音以及身体特征。而社会(性别)身份则分为男性化或女性化。而跨性别者则力图让性别表达与性别认同,而非生理性别相一致。

Sexual Orientation
性取向

Describes a person’s enduring physical and romantic attraction to another person. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same. Transgender people may be straight, lesbian, gay, or bisexual. For example, a person who transits from male to female and is attracted solely to men would identify as a straight woman.
性取向指一个人在情感与生理上对他人的持久的吸引。性取向与性别认同并不完全相同。跨性别者可能是异性恋、同性恋或双性恋。比如,一个人从男性变为女性,但依旧对男性情有独钟,那么她就是女性异性恋者。

Transgender
跨性别者

An umbrella term for people whose gender identity and/or gender expression differs from what is typically associated with the sex they were born as. Some undergo medical procedures or surgery to change their bodies. But not all transgender people can or will take those steps, and a transgender identity is not dependent upon medical procedures.
跨性别者是对性别认同与性别表达中至少有一项与天生生理性别不一致人群的统称。有些人通过药物或手术治疗改变生理性别,但并非所有的跨性别者都能够或愿意接受这一改变。同时,跨性别认同并不取决于是否接受变性治疗。

Transgender man
变性人(女变男)

People who are born female but identify and live as a man may use this term to describe themselves. They may shorten it to “trans man”. Some may also use FTM, an abbreviation for female-to-male. Some may prefer to simply be called men, without any modifier. It is best to ask which term an individual prefers. The term’s exact opposite is “transgender woman” or “trans woman”. But take note that transgender women are not cross-dressers or drag queens. Drag queens are men, typically gay men, who dress like women for the purpose of entertainment. Do not use the word “transvestite” at all, unless someone specifically self-identifies that way.
变性人(女变男)指生为女性,但性别认同为男性,并以男性身份生活的人们,英文也可缩写为“trans man”,或FTM(女变男)。有些人更希望人们直接称呼他们“男人”,不加任何修饰语。当然,称呼前最好询问一下他们的个人偏好。与这个词相对的则是“(男变女)变性人”,英文简称“trans woman”。不过,一定要注意将他们和“异装者”或“变装皇后”区别开。后者指为了娱乐效果,扮女装的男性(尤其是男同性恋者)。同时,也要避免使用“异装癖”这个词,除非被称呼者本人也如此认为。

21英语网站版权说明  (Translator & Editor: 21英语 Sara And Ji Yuan)


以上文章内容选自《21世纪英文报》,详情请见《21世纪英文报》1108期
辞海拾贝
Marginalize边缘化 Manifestation表现
Masculine男性的 Feminine女性的
Align匹配 Abbreviation缩写


 


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