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Culture Insider: Admission letters in ancient China

古代金榜题名的“录取通知书”都长啥样?

中文 英文 双语 2018-08-10    来源:中国日报      阅读数:10926
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导读:十年寒窗苦读日,只盼金榜题名时。今年的高考考生们都陆续收到了自己的大学录取通知书,而千百年前古人们的“录取通知书”又会是什么样的呢?

图片来源:图虫创意
As high school graduates have finished their college entrance exams and filled out the application forms for their desirable colleges, they are now anxiously waiting for admission letters to arrive.
高考考生们都已完成高考并填报了志愿,现在正焦急地等待着录取通知书的到来。

Today’s admission letters have become more and more creative with delicate designs. However, do you know how students in ancient times received their admission letters and what the letters were like?
如今的录取通知书都经过了精心设计,变得更有创意。然而,你知道古代考生们是如何收到录取通知书的么?那时候的录取通知书又长什么样呢?

Gold and glittering admission letter
金灿灿的录取通知书

During the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the admission letter was on paper decorated with gold bits, or scraps, to denote those who stood out in the ancient imperial examinations, or keju. The gold notice was sent home by students attached to a letter, instead of through official channels, so some people think this was not an official admission letter.
唐代的录取通知书写在饰以金片的纸上,表明此人在古代科举考试中脱颖而出。这封金灿灿的通知书和一封信一起由考生寄回家,而非通过官方渠道寄送,所以一些人认为这并不是一封正式的录取通知书。

The widely-recognized official admission letter was called jinhua tiezi (golden flower letter), which appeared later. It was similar to today’s admission letters from key national universities.
后来就有了公认的官方录取通知书“金花帖子”。它和今天重点大学的录取通知书很像。

According to historical records from the Song Dynasty (960-1279), jinhua tiezi was written on top-quality paper sprinkled with powdered gold, which was usually five cun long (about 15 centimeters). Until the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), woodblock printed admission letters were made.
据宋朝史料记载,“金花帖子”写在撒有金粉的高级纸张上,通常为五寸长。而清朝则使用的是木版印刷的录取通知书。

Admission letters in the Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasties were called jiebao, which were larger in size and made for students to put on display in their halls.
明清两朝的录取通知书被称为“捷报”,尺寸会更大些,让学生能在家中厅堂展示。

Overall, fancier materials were used to make admission letters to candidates with higher grades. Besides paper, some used delicate brocade silk or fine processed wood.
总体而言,成绩好的考生拿到的录取通知书材质也会更好。除了纸张,一些录取通知书还会写在精美的锦缎或者加工精细的木材上。

What was written on an admission letter?
录取通知书上写了些什么?

The ancient admission letter was always written in clerical script (lishu), an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy. The center of the letter showed the examinee’s ranking as well as the year and name of the exam.
古代的录取通知书皆为隶书字体,通知书的中间会写上应试者的名次、年份以及考试名称。

During the Tang and Song dynasties, the jinhua tiezi would first list the names, titles and personal information of the main officials in charge of the exam and then the name of the examinee.
在唐宋时期的“金花帖子”上,会先列出主持考试的主要官员名字、官职以及个人信息,然后才写上应试者的名字。

The jiebao in the Ming and Qing dynasties had simpler content, which just contained the name and ranking of the examinee.
明清时期的“捷报”内容更为简洁,只有应试者的姓名和名次。

The ancient admission letters also had to be stamped with special seals after being written. In the Qing Dynasty, the list of successful candidates during the dianshi, the top-level exam in keju, would be sealed by the emperor and shown to the public.
古代的录取通知书写成之后也需加印上特殊印章。清朝时期,殿试为科举考试中的最高一段。皇帝会亲自为殿试中试之人的名单盖上印章,并公之于众。

How was an admission letter delivered?
录取通知书是如何送达的?

Nowadays, admission letters are delivered by China Post, while in ancient times, delivery of the admission letter involved a very solemn government procedure. A special team would be assembled to deliver the letter, with an official riding on a tall horse, raising up a flag in the front, and a band followed behind playing cheerful music and lighting fire crackers to celebrate.
如今的录取通知书都由中国邮政送到考生手上,而在古代,运送录取通知书这一庄严的过程则是由朝廷负责。朝廷会召集一班特殊人马运送信函:一名官员骑着高头大马,在前方高举旗帜,紧随其后的乐队吹奏着欢快的音乐,点燃鞭炮以示庆贺。

After receiving the admission letter, the host would give red envelopes containing cash to the delivery men as lucky money. The letter would then be posted in the most prominent position in the hall of the candidate’s home as a proud honor.
在收到录取通知书之后,主人家会给送信人员装有现金的红包,图个好彩头。信函稍后会张贴在学生家中厅堂最显眼的地方,以示光宗耀祖。

21英语网站版权说明  (Translator & Editor: Wang Xingwei AND Ji Yuan)




 
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