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Building a better university

内地高校为何无缘亚洲十强?

中文 英文 双语 2010-05-27    来源:ZHANG CHUNMEI, 21ST CENTURY STAFF      阅读数:95400
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导读:今年四月,英国QS公司公布2010年亚洲最佳200所大学排名(ranking)。三所港校晋身5强,而北大清华这两所内地名校均无缘十强。排名一经公布便引来热议不断。究其原因,尽管内地高校学术成就颇高,但还存在许多软肋。只有对症下药,才能拉近中外名校间的差距。
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清华北大无缘亚洲高校十强
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清华北大无缘亚洲高校十强,学生们对此十分不快。
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大学排名
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学生希望在大学学到些什么?(上图)2010年亚洲高校前五强排名(下图)
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大学排名
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QS亚洲大学排名前十位
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大学排名
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香港大学位居亚洲最佳200所大学排行榜榜首。

As high school students, Sang Tian and Huang Yunru dreamed of attending one of the world’s top universities. They slaved over their studies and were eventually admitted to prestigious schools – only one turned out to be far more prestigious than the other, according to new rankings of Asia’s top schools.
高中时,桑田和黄蕴如(音译)都梦想着能进入一所世界顶尖大学。他们勤奋学习,最终考入了两所名校——只是根据亚洲高校最新排行榜显示,这两所大学的排名相差悬殊。

Huang Yunru, 19, went to the University of Hong Kong, the No 1 school in Asia. Sang, also 19, went to Tsinghua University, which was ranked a disappointing 16th in Asia. When Sang heard the news, he couldn’t believe his ears. “What? How can it be?” he recalled thinking.
19岁的黄蕴如升入亚洲排名第一的香港大学。同样19岁的桑田则进入清华大学学习,令人遗憾的是,该校在亚洲仅仅排在第16位。当桑田听到这则消息时,他感到难以置信。他陷入沉思:“什么?怎么会是这样?”

The new list of Asia’s top 200 universities was published last month by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS), a UK-based career and education company. The rankings have triggered heated discussions among Chinese people, since the mainland’s top two schools – Peking University (PKU) and Tsinghua University – were not in the top 10.
英国职业与教育研究公司Quacquarelli Symonds(简称QS)于上月发布亚洲最佳200所大学的最新排名。此次排名中内地两所顶尖学府北京大学和清华大学未能进入前十,这也引起中国民众的热议。

Actually, this isn’t the first time that the schools have fared poorly in regional or global rankings. The 2010 world university list released by the magazine US News & World Report ranked Peking University at 50th and Tsinghua University at 56th. They were the only two mainland schools in the top 100. Meanwhile, 37 US universities made the top 100 list. And three of 10 Hong Kong universities made the top 50.
事实上,清华北大并非首次在区域或全球排名中遭遇如此尴尬境地了。在《美国新闻与世界报道》杂志公布的2010年全球高校排名中,北京大学位列第50位,清华则排在56位。进入前100名的内地高校只有清华北大两所。相比之下,37所美国大学进入前100名,10所香港高校中有3所进入前50名。

Scoring the schools
为高校评分

Chinese universities’ poor performance has saddened many students. “I can’t understand their criteria,” said Sang. “At least we are a university with a long, proud history.”
学生们对中国高校的失利感到很不快。“我不理解他们评判的标准,至少我们的学校拥有悠久而光荣的历史。”

In fact, international ranking organizations care most about a university’s performance in academic peer review, student-to-faculty ratio, and the presence of international faculty and students.
实际上,这些评价大学排名的国际机构对高校实力关注最多的是学术评分、师生比例以及师生资源的国际化。

According to the QS list, Chinese universities are doing OK in academic peer review, with both Tsinghua and Peking University scoring a full 100. But when it comes to student-to-faculty ratio, their rankings drop, with Tsinghua at 22th and Peking at 23rd.
根据QS排名,中国高校在学术评分方面表现优秀,清华北大双双取得满分。但在师生比例这一项上,他们的排名双双下跌。清华北大分列第22和23位。

QS stats show that an undergraduate class at Tsinghua has an average of 29 students. But at Harvard, most freshman classes have less than 20 students, and tutorials at Australian National University have only about 15 students.
QS统计显示,清华的本科生班级平均学生数为29人。但在哈佛,大学一年级每个班的学生数都少于20人,澳大利亚国立大学则为15人。

John Hennessy, president of Stanford University, said at the Fourth Chinese-Foreign University Presidents Forum in early May that a lack of small-group discussions has seriously affected the teaching quality at Chinese universities. This has also resulted in students being afraid to question or challenge teachers.
在五月初举行的第四届中外大学校长论坛上,斯坦福大学校长约翰•赫尼斯表示,由于缺少小组讨论,中国高校的教学质量受到了严重影响。这也使得学生怯于向老师发问。

That’s not the worst part. Chinese universities get even lower scores in the category of “international faculty” in the QS rankings. None of them made the top 20 in Asia.
以上这项还不是最糟糕的。中国高校在“国际师资力量”这一类别的分数甚至更低。没有一所大学进入亚洲前20名。

Catching up
缩小差距

Many other academic figures and officials have noticed Chinese universities’ “weaknesses”.
许多学术名家以及政府官员已经意识到中国高校的“软肋”。

Last week, China’s Ministry of Education announced a program that will send 100 college leaders overseas to receive 21 days of training in foreign countries, including Australia, Japan, the UK and the US. The tour aims to “allow Chinese college leaders to learn from the experience of the world’s famous universities”.
上周,中国教育部称,将组织100大学领导前往澳大利亚、英国、美国、日本等国家,接受为期21天的培训。该项目旨在“为中国高校领导们提供学习世界名校成功经验的机会”。

People are debating the effectiveness of such a short-term tour for school leaders, but China is taking other steps to improve its universities, as well.
尽管对于该短期项目的有效性,人们众口不一,但中国正在实施新的举措来促进其高校的发展。

On May 5, the State Council adopted the National Outline for Medium- and Long-Term Educational Reform and Development (2010-2020).
5月5日,国务院通过《国家中长期教育改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020)》

In the outline, the central government promised to increase its spending on education to 4 percent of the country’s gross domestic product in 2012. The investment will help schools to construct better laboratories and internship bases, and it will attract more notable foreign scholars and experts to come to teach and research in China.
在该项规划纲要中,中央政府承诺将增加教育经费支出,到2012年达到国民生产总值的4%。该项投资将帮助高校改善图书馆及学生实习基地,同时也将吸引更多知名的外国学者专家来中国进行教学和研究。

The “soft” ability of Chinese universities also needs to be honed.
中国高校羽翼未丰,软实力还需加强。

At the Chinese-Foreign University Presidents Forum, Richard Levin, president of Yale University, said that there are two missing ingredients from Chinese universities’ undergraduate education: cross-curricular studies and the cultivation of critical thinking.
在中外大学校长论坛上,耶鲁大学校长理查德•莱文表示,中国高校本科生教育缺失两种元素:交叉学科研究以及批判性思维的培养。

So, reform is under way, but it will take time. John Hennessy, president of Stanford University, said that only a few universities can be called “world-class”, and he doesn’t expect China to have a “world-class” institution for another 20 to 50 years.
所以改革势在必行,但还需时日。斯坦福大学校长约翰•赫尼斯说,可称作世界顶尖大学的高校可谓凤毛麟角,他预期中国不会在20至50年时间内创办一所世界顶尖大学。

21英语网站版权说明  (Translator & Editor: 21英语 Aaron AND Lily)


以上文章内容选自《21世纪英文报》,详情请见《21世纪英文报》856期
辞海拾贝
criteria标准,准则,尺度 critical批评的, 批判的
cross-curricular跨学科 fare进展, 遭遇
hone磨练 notable知名的
prestigious有声望的, 有威信的 ranking排名
trigger引发 tutorial导师



 
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