Hi,
订阅
报纸
纸质报纸 电子报纸
手机订阅 微商城
英语
学习
双语学习 热点翻译 英语视频
实用英语 报纸听力 图书推荐
教育
信息
最新动态 活动预告
备课资源 语言文化
演讲
比赛
精彩演讲
活动动态
用报
专区
高中   初中
小学   画刊
口语 > 实用英语 > 正文
2000多年前,中国最好的“大学”什么样?
来源:21英语网    作者:21ST   日期: 2022-03-16
稷下学宫是我国历史上第一所由官方举办的高等学府,于公元前374年建立。今年2月,其遗址被发现,自此引发了人们的诸多好奇。这所2000多年前的高等院校是什么样子的?在当时起到了什么作用?学校的校规是否严格呢?


视频来源:看看新闻网

Since the ruins of ancient China's first government-run institution of higher learning had been discovered in late February in Zibo City, east China's Shandong Province, curiosity has been roused around the school built in 374 BC.

稷下学宫遗址确定
百家争鸣在这开启


据考古人员介绍,经过近五年的考古发掘,可以基本确定此处为稷下学宫遗址。而据史料记载,稷下学宫始建于公元前374年的齐桓公田午时期,因位于临淄稷门附近而得名,存续达150余年。稷下学宫是世界上第一所由官方举办、私家主持的特殊形式的高等学府,是一个同时具有“社会科学院”“政府智库”性质的最早的“学术机构”,是研究院、大学堂、施政咨询等多种性质的机构。

The building complex was unearthed following a five-year excavation drive, and historical records confirmed it to be the Jixia Academy, a state institution of higher learning with multiple roles such as research institute, university, and think tank, and had existed for more than 150 years.


Photo taken on March 1, 2022 shows a view of the ruins of Jixia Academy, ancient China's first government-run institution of higher learning, discovered in Zibo City, east China's Shandong Province. (Xinhua/Wang Yang)

建筑基址群东与齐故城小城相接,南宽北窄略呈直角梯形,东西约210米、南北长约190米,总面积近4万平方米,共发现四排建筑基址,与现代大学规模相似。稷下学宫遗址的确定,是山东考古取得的重大成果。

Four rows of building foundations have been found at the site, measuring about 210 meters from east to west at its widest and 190 meters long from north to south, with a total area of nearly 40,000 square meters. The site is connected to the ancient capital city of Qi, and it appears as a right-angled trapezoid from above, according to archaeologists.

在近五年的考古发掘工作中,已经出土了上千件文物。一些建筑构建采用了特殊工艺,阳光打上去,会呈现出七彩。山东博物馆馆长郑同修表示这样高规格的装饰构建反映了当时稷下学宫的繁荣景象。

More than 1,000 artifacts were unearthed during the last five years of excavation, among which architectural components using a special technique would glow with colorful lights when the sun shines on them. The high-level decoration proves the prosperity and glory of Jixia Academy, said Zheng Tongxiu, curator of the provincial museum.

Photo taken on March 1, 2022 shows some relics unearthed from the ruins of Jixia Academy, ancient China's first government-run institution of higher learning, discovered in Zibo City, east China's Shandong Province. (Xinhua/Wang Yang)

而战国时代(公元前475-前221年)齐都临淄的稷下学宫就是当时诸子荟萃、百家争鸣的主要园地和学术交流、文化传播中心。

Founded by the State of Qi during the Warring States Period (475-221 BC), Jixia Academy was the center of the academic scene of "the contention of a hundred schools of thought" in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770 B.C.-256 B.C.).

与柏拉图学园双峰并峙
是世界文明史上的奇迹


山东理工大学著名齐文化研究专家王志民教授表示,“如果把稷下学宫放在世界文明史的层面上来看的话,它的意义就更大。”王志民说,在世界文明史上,或者说是世界教育史研究上,有些西方学者一直提出来希腊的柏拉图学园是世界历史上最早的第一所大学,他们认为希腊文明是高度发达的,那么柏拉图学园也称阿卡德米学园自然是世界上最早的。

稷下学宫的考古发掘证明,东方的中国也是世界文明的中心,而且是更重要的中心,古老的思想文化一直传承至今从未间断。所以我们要坚定文化自信,中华文明在世界文明史上同样具有非常重要的突出地位,做出过巨大的贡献,稷下学宫就是一个很突出的标志。


Photo taken on March 1, 2022 shows part of the foundation of the ruins of Jixia Academy, ancient China's first government-run institution of higher learning, discovered in Zibo City, east China's Shandong Province. (Xinhua/Wang Yang)

In a similar period, Plato's Academy was founded in Athens. Along with the Jixia Academy, both institutions of higher learning created a glorious time in the history of world civilization.

"The two institutions acted as the cradle of thoughts, seeking ideological and philosophical breakthroughs, which made them quite similar," said Wang Zhimin, director of Qi culture institute of Shandong University of Technology.

Wang said the two institutions shared the same academic atmosphere. "Dialogues, discussions and even debates were frequently seen in both schools to achieve the advancement of academics."

As to the follow-up impacts on the world, Wang said the Jixia Academy shaped the mode of traditional Chinese culture, and Plato's Academy set up a model of higher education, helping the western world to establish modern universities afterward.

稷下学宫制度严格
学与教双向选择


稷下学宫有严格的教学纪律和健全的规章制度:从学生饮食起居、衣着服饰,到上课纪律、课后复习以及学生的品德修养、尊敬师长等方面都进行了详细规定,值得后人参照。

稷下学宫具有规模宏大的校舍条件:学宫地处“康庄之衢”,有利于师生开展较为正式的教学活动,相互借鉴,彼此融合发展,促成了稷下学宫多元思想并立,各家平等发展的学术繁荣景象。

稷下学宫以游学为主的教学方式独具特色:学生自由地来稷下拜师求学,老师也可以在稷下招生讲学,学与教双向选择,思想上兼并包容,营造学术上的百家争鸣,促进了各种学说学派的发展,还有利于创立新学说,培养和发现人才。

Jixia Academy is an unprecedented feat in the history of Chinese education. It has large-scale school buildings, a large number of teachers and students, strict rules and regulations, and regular teaching activities.

Students were free to come to Jixia for study and teachers could also enroll students and give lectures there. Such a free atmosphere greatly promoted the cultivation of talents.

With its open and inclusive academic atmosphere, Jixia attracted countless famous scholars, even gathering thousands of learners sometimes.

综合来源:中新网 光明日报 齐鲁晚报网 淄博日报 China Daily 




 
订阅更精彩

 主办
联系我们   |    诚聘英才   |   演讲比赛   |   关于我们   |   手机访问
中报二十一世纪(北京)传媒科技有限公司版权所有,未经书面授权,禁止转载或建立镜像。
主办单位:中国日报社 Copyright by 21st Century English Education Media All Rights Reserved 版权所有 复制必究
网站信息网络传播视听节目许可证0108263   京ICP备13028878号-12   京公网安备 11010502033664号

关闭
内容