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翻译频道 > 热点翻译 > 正文
美卫星曾两次接近!中国空间站紧急避碰以免碰撞!
来源:21英语网    作者:21ST   日期: 2021-12-28
最近,神舟十三号航天员乘组完成第二次出舱全部既定任务,大家在为中国的航天事业不断进步欣喜之时,也关注到一条令人担忧的新闻:美国“星链” 卫星先后两次接近中国空间站,空间站被迫实施机动紧急避碰。
 


据2021年12月3日中国常驻联合国(维也纳)代表团(Permanent Mission of China to the United Nations (Vienna))致秘书长的普通照会文件显示,根据《外空条约》的相关规定,中国向联合国秘书长通报以下对中国空间站搭载的航天员生命健康构成危险的现象。

美国太空探索技术公司(SpaceX)发射的星链(starlink)卫星先后两次接近中国空间站。出于安全考虑,空间站组合体分别于 7 月 1 日和 10 月21 日实施对美国星链卫星的预防性碰撞规避控制(“紧急避碰”)。

Starlink satellites launched by Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) of the United States of America have had two close encounters with the China Space Station. For safety reasons, the China Space Station implemented preventive collision avoidance control on 1 July and 21 October 2021, respectively.

照会详细介绍了这两次情况:

第一次紧急避碰

星链-1095 卫星自 2020 年 4 月 19 日起稳定运行在平均高度约 555 千米的轨道上。2021 年 5 月 16 日至 6 月 24 日,该卫星持续降轨机动至平均轨道高度 382千米后,保持在该轨道高度运行。7 月 1 日,该卫星与中国空间站间出现近距离接近事件。出于安全考虑,中国空间站于 7 月 1 日晚主动采取紧急避碰,规避了两目标碰撞风险。 

As from 19 April 2020, the Starlink-1095 satellite had been travelling stably in orbit at an average altitude of around 555 km. Between 16 May and 24 June 2021, the Starlink-1095 satellite manoeuvred continuously to an orbit of around 382 km, and then stayed in that orbit. A close encounter occurred between the Starlink-1095 satellite and the China Space Station on 1 July 2021. For safety reasons, the China Space Station took the initiative to conduct an evasive manoeuvre in the evening of that day to avoid a potential collision between the two spacecraft.

第二次紧急避碰

2021 年 10 月 21 日,星链-2305 卫星与中国空间站发生近距离接近事件。鉴于该卫星处于连续轨道机动状态,机动策略未知且无法评估轨道误差,存在与空间站碰撞风险。为确保在轨航天员安全,中国空间站于当日再次实施紧急避碰,规避了两目标碰撞风险。 

On 21 October 2021, the Starlink-2305 satellite had a subsequent close encounter with the China Space Station. As the satellite was continuously manoeuvring, the manoeuvre strategy was unknown and orbital errors were hard to be assessed, there was thus a collision risk between the Starlink-2305 satellite and the China Space Station. To ensure the safety and lives of in-orbit astronauts, the China Space Station performed an evasive manoeuvre again on the same day to avoid a potential collision between the two spacecraft.

中方请联合国秘书长将上述情况周知《外空条约》各缔约国,并提请各缔约国注意,根据《外空条约》第 6 条,“各缔约国对其(不论是政府部门,还是非政府的团体组织)在外层空间(包括月球和其他天体)所从事的活动,要承担国际责任,并应负责保证本国活动的实施符合本条约的规定。”

In view of the foregoing, China wishes to request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to circulate the above-mentioned information to all States parties to the Outer Space Treaty and bring to their attention that, in accordance with article VI of the Treaty, “States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty.”


这是11月7日在北京航天飞行控制中心拍摄的神舟十三号航天员翟志刚、王亚平同时在舱外操作的场景。新华社发(郭中正 摄)

航天专家黄志澄在接受《环球时报》时表示,“星链”卫星轨道平均高度在550公里左右,降轨可能是为了增强卫星星座在局部地区的通讯性能。此外,还有一种可能性就是借此探测中方的太空感知能力,测试中方是否能够准确的掌握它们的行动。

Huang Zhicheng, a senior expert on aerospace science and technology, told the Global Times on Monday that the Starlink satellites launched by SpaceX had always orbited an altitude of around 550 kilometers. According to the note, China implemented preventive collision avoidance control during the two occasions because the Starlink satellites descended to lower orbits, which could be to enhance satellites' regional communication capacity. "But we can't rule out the possibility that the move is intended to test China's capacity in space to check whether China can accurately grasp the satellites' actions," Huang said.

据路透社报道,现在地球轨道上大约有3万颗人造卫星及其他残骸,科学家呼吁各国政府分享数据降低太空碰撞的风险。在这其中,SpaceX公司一家就部署了大约1900颗卫星用于服务其“星链”网络,而且还计划部署更多卫星。

With nearly 30,000 satellites and other debris believed to be orbiting the planet, scientists have urged governments to share data to reduce the risk of catastrophic space collisions. SpaceX alone has deployed nearly 1,900 satellites to serve its Starlink broadband network, and is planning more.

美国宇航局也在11月底被迫取消过一次太空行走活动,理由是太空残骸可能带来的危险。

U.S. space agency NASA was forced to abruptly call off a spacewalk at the end of November, citing risks posed by space debris. 

路透社称SpaceX方面尚未就此做出回应。

SpaceX did not immediately respond to a request for comment.

12月28日,外交部发言人赵立坚在例行记者会上回答了相关问题。

赵立坚:

“我可以负责任地向大家证实,今年7月和10月,美国太空探索技术公司发射的星链卫星先后两次接近中国空间站。在此期间,中国航天员正在空间站内执行任务。出于安全考虑,中国空间站采取了紧急避碰措施。”

"I can confirm that Starlink satellites launched by SpaceX of the US had two close encounters with the China Space Station in July and October this year respectively when Chinese astronauts were working there. For safety considerations, the China Space Station implemented preventive collision avoidance control."


图源:外交部网站

“1967年《外空条约》是公认的当前外空领域国际法基石。该条约规定,航天员是全人类派往外层空间的使节,各国应尊重、保护航天员安全,并将在外空发现的对航天员生命或健康构成危险的现象通知联合国秘书长或其他缔约国;各国还应为其国内私人公司的一切外空活动承担责任。为履行条约义务,维护航天员生命安全,中国政府于12月3日通过中国常驻维也纳代表团向联合国秘书长通报了上述危险情况和中方采取的措施,并请秘书长周知各缔约国。美国口口声声宣称所谓‘负责任外空行为’概念,自己却无视外空国际条约义务,对航天员生命安全造成严重威胁,这是典型的双重标准。”

“The 1967 Outer Space Treaty, which is widely recognized as the cornerstone of international space law, stipulates that 'States Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind in outer space'; respect and protect their safety; 'immediately inform the other States Parties to the Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena they discover in outer space ... which could constitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts'; and 'bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space' conducted by their private companies. To fulfill its Treaty obligations and ensure the safety of astronauts, the Chinese government informed the UN Secretary-General of the above dangerous phenomena as well as the measures taken by the Chinese side on December 3 through its Permanent Mission to the United Nations in Vienna and requested the Secretary-General to circulate the information to all States Parties. The US claims to be a strong advocate for the concept of 'responsible behavior in outer space', but it disregarded its Treaty obligations and posed a grave threat to the safety of astronauts. This is typical double standard.”

“探索与和平利用外空是全人类共同的事业。中方始终本着为全人类谋福利的精神和平利用外空。美方应该尊重以国际法为基础的外空国际秩序,立即采取措施防止此类事件再次发生,采取负责任的态度维护在轨航天员的生命安全和空间设施的安全稳定运行。”

"Exploration and peaceful uses of outer space is a common cause of all humanity. Guided by the vision of advancing the welfare of all, China is committed to peaceful uses of space. The US should respect international order in space based on international law, take prompt measures to prevent such incidents from recurring, and act responsibly to safeguard the safety of in-orbit astronauts and the safe and steady operation of space facilities."

综合来源:Global Times,路透社,外交部网站

标签:社会




 
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