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奥密克戎变异株致病力如何?危重症比例如何?专家解读来了
来源:融媒体采编平台    作者:马铮   日期: 2022-12-07

随着奥密克戎病毒致病性的减弱、疫苗接种的普及、防控经验的积累,我国疫情防控面临新形势新任务。当前奥密克戎变异株传播性强吗?导致的重症率高吗?
 

近日,国务院联防联控机制组织呼吸危重症专家、首都医科大学附属北京朝阳医院副院长、北京市呼吸疾病研究所所长童朝晖接受央视新闻采访时作出专业解答。
 

奥密克戎变异株传播性较强

致病力和毒力较原始株明显减弱
 

童朝晖表示,国际和国内监测数据证实,奥密克戎变异株及其进化分支的致病力和毒力相比原始株和德尔塔等变异株明显减弱。

视频来源:央视网
 

童朝晖表示,随着病毒变异,以及疫苗接种的普及、防控经验的积累,奥密克戎导致的住院率、重症率、病死率都在大幅降低。从当前全国病例来看,感染奥密克戎后以上呼吸道症状为主,主要表现为嗓子不舒服、咳嗽等。无症状和轻型大约占了90%以上,普通型(出现肺炎症状)已经不多,重症(需要高流量氧疗或接受无创、有创通气)的比例更小。

With the weakening pathogenicity of the Omicron variant, the increasing uptake of vaccinations, and the growing experience of outbreak control and prevention, the rates of hospitalization, severe illness or fatality from Omicron have been significantly reduced, Tong Zhaohui, vice-president of Beijing Chaoyang Hospital said.

"The Omicron variant mainly affects the upper respiratory tract, causing mild symptoms like sore throat and coughing," Tong said . According to him, in the ongoing outbreak in China, mild and asymptomatic cases accounted for 90 percent of the total infections, and there were fewer moderate cases (showing pneumonia-like symptoms). The proportion of severe cases (requiring high-flow oxygen therapy or receiving noninvasive, invasive ventilation) was even smaller.

图源:央视新闻


这与武汉保卫战期间新冠病毒原始株导致的症状有很大不同。当时,重症患者较多,一些青壮年患者的双肺也会呈白色,出现急性呼吸衰竭。但本轮疫情期间,从北京的定点医院救治情况看,真正因新冠肺炎导致要插管上呼吸机的患者只有少数几例。

"This is quite different from the situation in Wuhan (in late 2019), where the original strain caused the outbreak. At that time, there were more severe patients, with some young patients also presenting "white lungs" and suffering acute respiratory failure. While the current round of outbreak in Beijing shows only a few severe cases need ventilators to provide respiratory support in designated hospitals," Tong said.
 

童朝晖表示,与2009年全球流感流行时期相比,目前奥密克戎变异株导致肺炎或者重症、危重症的比例相对较低。

Compared with the 2009 global flu season, the current severe case ratio amid COVID-19 is relatively lower.
 

童朝晖介绍,高龄老人,有心脑血管疾病、慢性呼吸道疾病等基础病的患者,正在进行放化疗的肿瘤患者,妊娠晚期孕妇等,免疫力较低,可归纳为脆弱群体。从目前救治情况看,他们感染新冠病毒后住进定点医院,大多数是因为原发疾病,但又因核酸阳性无法住进普通医院。这类患者的新冠肺炎症状不明显,治疗通常没有太大区别。对于CT影像等临床表现为典型新冠肺炎的少数患者,医务人员严格按照标准规范,进行救治。

"Vulnerable groups like seniors with chronic conditions, cancer patients under chemoradiotherapy, and pregnant women during the third trimester usually don't need special treatment as they show no apparent symptoms after being infected with the novel coronavirus. The medical staff will perform the treatment strictly by standards and norms only for those showing symptoms or who have abnormal lung CT scan findings," he said.

 

在北京的定点医院,对于部分有基础病的高龄患者,还会组织多学科专家进行会诊。经过治疗,如果患者的核酸检测已经转阴,也将逐步从定点医院分流到其他医院。

"For the elderly patients with underlying diseases, the designated hospitals will arrange multidisciplinary consultation to provide them with professional treatment. If their nucleic acid test turns negative after the treatment, they will be transferred from designated hospitals to other hospitals," Tong added.
 

扩展阅读:

多地优化完善防控措施
 

据中国日报网报道,近来国内越来越多的城市调整了疫情防控措施,促进复工复产,恢复社会活动,并呼吁个人防护不松懈,做自己健康的第一责任人。

More Chinese cities have adjusted their COVID-19 measures to facilitate people resuming work and social activities, as members of the public are being asked to take greater responsibility to protect their own health.
 

2022年12月6日起,北京市核酸检测查验实行以下措施:进入商超、商务楼宇及各类公共场所,可不查验核酸检测阴性证明,扫码进入即可。进入社区(村),不查验核酸检测阴性证明,常住居民可不扫码。

Beijing will no longer require people to show their negative nucleic acid testing results before entering public places such as supermarkets, shopping malls and office buildings starting Tuesday, according to the city government. People only need to scan their health codes before entering those public places.

进入网吧、酒吧、棋牌室、KTV、剧本杀、桑拿洗浴等密闭场所以及餐饮(堂食)、室内健身等场所,须扫码并查验48小时核酸检测阴性证明。进入养老机构、儿童福利机构、幼儿园和中小学及医疗机构住院部等场所,须扫码并查验48小时核酸检测阴性证明。

Some indoor places such as internet cafes, bars, karaoke rooms and certain institutions such as nursing homes, welfare homes, kindergartens and schools will still require the visitors to show negative nucleic acid testing results before entering. 

重要单位和重大活动可根据需要,确定核酸检测查验措施。各区继续提供社会面免费核酸检测服务并不断优化布局,方便满足群众愿检尽检需求和防疫工作需要。

倡导市民做好个人防护,戴好口罩、接种疫苗、减少不必要的聚集。

The announcement said all the districts should continue to provide and improve the nucleic acid tests service for the public. It has also reminded the public to wear masks and reduce gathering.

 
 

据《北京青年报》记者梳理统计,截至6日,全国至少已有48个城市除养老院、医院等特殊场所,其他公共场所均不再查验核酸检测阴性证明,有一些城市各类公共场所、公共交通工具都不再查验核酸证明。另有省市宣布不再开展常态化核酸检测。


综合来源:新华网,央视新闻,中国日报网,北京青年报


标签:社会




 
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