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三星堆上新了!这次考古”盲盒”开出的国宝级文物是……
来源:21英语网    日期: 2021-06-01
伴随着三星堆遗址的考古发掘,大量珍贵文物重见天日。近日,三星堆考古的“盲盒”再次重磅上新啦。就这样,从今年春天开始占据新闻C位的三星堆,将“星星”之火燎到了夏天。原来,考古也是可以“追番”的。

据央视新闻报道,5月28日下午,由国务院新闻办、国家文物局、四川省人民政府共同主办的“三星堆全球文化推介会”,在广汉三星堆遗址考古大棚外举行。推介会公布了三星堆遗址6个祭祀坑的最新发掘进展。目前,6个三星堆祭祀坑已提取出土象牙、青铜器、金器、玉石器等重要文物534件及残破文物碎片近2000件。

图源:央视新闻

Archeologists have unearthed more than 1,000 significant relics at the six new sacrificial pits of the legendary Sanxingdui Ruins site in southwest China.

据了解,3号坑发掘青铜器、象牙各100件以上,此外还发现了玉石器、金器、海贝等。已确认一批精彩、珍贵文物,包括铜顶尊跪坐人像、圆口方尊、铜顶坛人像、青铜神树、大型青铜面具等。

其中,出土的铜顶尊跪坐人像,高115厘米,这件将人与尊组合为一体的大型青铜艺术品在中国与世界均属首次发现,是一件国宝级文物。

图源:新华网

铜顶尊跪坐人像由上下两部分组成,上部为一件55厘米青铜大口尊,铜尊口沿内侧有短柱,肩部焊有精美的龙形装饰;下部则为一呈跪姿、双手持物于身前的高60厘米铜人。尊在古代用作酒器,在祭祀活动中体现敬重、推崇。

Relics in the No.3 pit are mainly bronzewares and ivories, both of which have exceeded 100 pieces. Among the bronzewares, such as trees and large masks, a bronze figure with a square altar-shaped bronzeware held up in his hands has never been seen before. Jade and stone tools and gold and seashells were also found in the pit.

Also from the No.3 pit revealed an extremely rare bronze ware of 115 cm high, with its lower part a bronze figurine with clasping hands in front of the body and its head topped with a square plate. Attached to the plate is a rectangular bronzeware with exquisite dragon decorations.

4号坑发现丝绸,已提取象牙、金器、玉器、石器等文物534件,青铜器有扭头跪坐人像、有领璧、戚形方孔璧、戈等,玉器有琮、凿和有领璧等,金器有带饰、树叶形挂饰以及圆形箔片等。

The No.4 pit has a large number of relics. So far, archeologists have unearthed 534 pieces, including ivories, gold, jade, stone, bronze, potteries, bones, textiles, and lacquerwares. From the pit, residues of silk were unearthed for the first time at Sanxingdui. Archeologists also found plants, such as bamboos.

5号坑已提取金面具、鸟形金饰、象牙及象牙器、玉石器和铜器等146件,坑内不少圆形穿孔金片疑为衣服上的装饰,部分象牙雕刻纹饰十分精细,有的纹饰线条宽度不足50微米。

6号坑的西侧发现1件保存完整的“木箱”,为三星堆首次发现。“木箱”长1.7米、宽0.57米、高0.4米,四周侧板形制完整,内侧涂有朱砂,但已炭化。

7号坑刚发掘到文物层,在仅1米长、0.6米宽、0.1米深的长方形解剖坑里,已经暴露出10根可分辨个体的象牙。

The No.5 pit saw tiny artifacts such as various fragments and beads. There are many round perforated gold pieces buried in this pit, which are probably clothes decorations. So far, 146 pieces of relics have been unearthed, including gold masks and bird-shaped gold ornaments.

A well-preserved wooden box with cinnabar coated on the inside was found in the No.6 pit, which was the first of its kind at Sanxingdui.

From the No.7 pit, which has just been excavated to the relic layer, ten ivories have been exposed.

值得一提的是,面积最大、启动最晚的8号坑,目前发掘到灰烬层,但现场已经提取出土象牙、青铜器、金器、玉石器等文物上千件。

日前,三星堆8号坑陆续发现石磬残片,可拼接成一件石磬,石磬长1米,宽52厘米,厚度4厘米,表面打磨平整。或为中国目前发现的最大一件石磬。

图源:央视新闻

除石磬残片外,8号坑还陆续出土近60件尺寸、形态各异的金叶。

图源:央视新闻

据介绍,金叶呈脉状纹式,顶端有孔,可用于悬挂。因为8号坑出土的神树枝杈较多,有考古人员推测金叶是悬挂在枝杈上的叶子,但也有人推测,这些文物呈鱼的形状。具体是叶子还是鱼形金饰片,还有待进一步论证,可以确定的是,它们应该是挂在神树上的饰物。

The No.8 pit mainly saw bronzewares, jade, gold foils, and stone tools. Larger bronzewares were mostly broken consciously, and the fragments were mainly from bronze trees. There were also many gold foils scattered in the ashes, some of which were identified as golden leaves. Pieces of textiles that were not completely burned were also found on some bronze fragments.

据国家文物局副局长胡冰介绍,在几代考古工作者的不懈努力下,三星堆遗址目前已基本建立起年代与分期编年体系,明确了三星堆城址结构布局与营建过程,展现了四川盆地与中原地区、关中地区、长江中下游地区间文化的密切关系。三星堆遗址“祭祀坑”考古新发现进一步展示了三星堆遗址和三星堆文化的丰富内涵,对认识三星堆遗址所代表的古蜀国祭祀体系以及三星堆遗址的性质和聚落变迁原因具有重要意义。“祭祀坑”出土文物提供了更具完整性的资料,极大丰富了古蜀文明的内涵,进一步明确了古蜀文明作为中华文明重要一极的地位。

三星堆遗址位于四川省广汉市三星堆镇,成都平原北部沱江支流湔江(鸭子河)南岸。遗址分布面积约12平方公里,是四川盆地目前发现的夏商时期规模最大、等级最高的中心性遗址。

综合来源:新华社 央视新闻 人民日报 光明日报 央广网




 
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