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Unveil new quantum computer

世界最快量子计算机“九章”问世

中文 英文 双语 2020-12-16    来源:21世纪学生英文报·高三     
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导读:12月4日,中国科学技术大学宣布该校潘建伟等人成功构建76个光子的量子计算原型机“九章”,求解数学算法高斯玻色取样只需200秒,而目前世界最快的超级计算机要用6亿年。这一突破使我国成为全球第二个实现“量子优越性”的国家。

A section of the light-based quantum computer Jiuzhang. XINHUA

Chinese scientists have created the world’s first light-based quantum computer, called Jiuzhang, opening a new era of quantum computation. It’s a breakthrough in the field after Google completed its quantum computer last year.
中国科学家构建世界首台光量子计算机“九章”,开启量子计算新时代。这是继去年谷歌发布其量子计算机后,该领域的一大突破。

Compared with today’s best supercomputers, Jiuzhang can calculate 100,000 billion times faster. For example, it takes Jiuzhang 200 seconds to perform Gaussian boson sampling, an extremely challenging calculation, while the fastest classical supercomputer, Fugaku, would need about 600 million years to complete the same task.
九章的计算速度比当今最强的超级计算机快一百万亿倍。比如,九章只需200秒就能处理高斯玻色取样问题,这是一个极具挑战的算题,而最快的传统超级计算机“富岳”则需6亿年才能完成相同的任务。

Quantum computers can take computational shortcuts when simulating extremely complex scenarios whereas conventional computers have to find a solution step by step, taking significantly more time in the process.
在模拟特别复杂的场景时,量子计算机可以采用计算捷径,而传统计算机必须一步步地找解决方案,在过程中花费更多时间。

Quantum machines’ amazing computing power arises from their basic building blocks, called quantum bits, or qubits, according to the University of Science and Technology of China. Usually, classical computers handle data in binary bits, presenting data as either 0s or 1s. However, quantum computers process data using qubits, which can be identified as 0s, 1s or everything in between. As a result, as the number of qubits increases, the computing ability of quantum computers increases too.
中国科技大学表示,量子计算机惊人的计算能力源于其基本单位“量子比特”或“量子位”。通常,传统计算机使用二进制位处理数据,数据显示为0或1。而量子计算机则使用量子位处理数据,显示为0或1或两者之间的任意数。因此,随着量子位数量增加,量子计算机的计算能力也随之增加。

Therefore, Jiuzhang, which uses 76 photons as qubits, is about 10 billion times faster than Google’s 53-qubit computer, which uses superconductive materials, according to the university.
因此,该高校认为,76个光子的量子计算机九章比谷歌使用超导材料的 53 比特量子计算机快一百亿倍。

Another advantage of Jiuzhang is that it’s easier to make and maintain. Superconducting quantum computers must be kept at ultra-cold temperatures to ensure their materials can conduct electricity without any resistance. But most components of Jiuzhang can operate at room temperature except its sensory equipment, which must be kept at -269.1 C.
九章的另一大优势是更容易构建与维护。超导量子计算机必须放置在超冷温度下,以确保其材料可以无阻导电。但九章的大多数部件可在室温下运行,其传感设备除外,必须保存于零下269.1摄氏度。

With advantages over traditional computers, quantum computers have a wide range of applications. The calculations carried out by Jiuzhang can potentially be applied to machine learning, quantum chemistry and graph theory, according to Pan Jianwei, a key researcher behind Jiuzhang.
量子计算机拥有传统计算机所没有的诸多优势,其应用范围也相当广泛。九章的主要研究人员潘建伟表示,九章的算法在机器学习、量子化学、图论等领域具有潜在应用价值。

According to Pan, quantum computing has already become a fierce competition ground among the United States, Europe and other developed regions. “The feat cements China’s position in the first echelon of nations in quantum computing,” the university said in a news release.
潘建伟称,量子计算机已经成为美国、欧洲及其他发达地区的“兵家必争之地”。“这一成果牢固确立了中国在量子计算研究中的第一方阵地位,”该高校在一份新闻稿中如此表示。

Jiuzhang is currently only programmed to do boson sampling. “In the near future, scientists may increase Jiuzhang’s possible output states – a key indicator of computing power,” Lu Chaoyang, another key researcher behind Jiuzhang, told China Daily.
九章目前只能处理玻色取样。“在不久的将来,科学家或许会提高九章的潜在输出态—— 这是计算能力的一个重要指标,”另一位主要研究人员陆朝阳在接受《中国日报》采访时表示。

21英语网站版权说明  (Translator & Editor: Wang Yue (Intern) AND Wang Xingwei)


以上文章内容选自《21世纪学生英文报高中版》,详情请见《21世纪学生英文报高中版》高三734期
辞海拾贝
Quantum量子 Gaussian boson sampling高斯玻色取样问题
Shortcuts捷径 Simulating模拟
Scenarios场景 Binary二进制的
Photons光子 Superconductive超导的
Ultra-cold超冷的 Sensory传感的
Feat壮举 Cements巩固
Echelon梯队 


 


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