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Spilling the magic beans

炫酷魔术背后隐藏的科学

中文 英文 双语 2022-08-17    来源:21世纪学生英文报·高一     
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导读:空中飘物、液体消失、纸张燃烧……这些神奇的魔术背后都隐藏着什么科学原理?

The magic of quantum physics can make objects float in mid-air. TUCHONG

In 1970, American magician Rick Johnsson theorized that when magic tricks seem too perfect, audiences are less impressed and can easily figure out their secrets. Researchers at the University of London tested this theory, publishing their findings in PeerJ journal on May 30.
1970年,美国魔术师瑞克·约翰逊提出了这样一个理论:魔术看起来太完美时,观众反而没那么动容了,而且很容易就能破解魔术的秘密。伦敦大学的研究人员测试了这一理论,并于5月30日在《同行界》期刊上发表了研究结果。

They found viewers preferred “perfect” tricks to flawed ones. But consistent with the theory, viewers had an easier time understanding how these tricks were performed.
研究人员发现,比起有瑕疵的魔术,观众更喜欢“完美”的魔术。但与约翰逊理论一致的是,此时观众更容易理解这些魔术是如何表演的。

Johnsson knew in the 20th century few people believed magicians had supernatural powers. They knew there is a rational explanation for magic, and it’s often science.
约翰逊深知,在20世纪,很少有人相信魔术师拥有超自然的力量,观众知道魔术有一个合理的解释,那往往就是科学。

What’s the science behind popular magic tricks? Website ScienceABC reveals their secrets. Let’s take a look.
广受欢迎的魔术背后,隐藏着什么科学原理?科学ABC网站揭露了而这些魔术的秘密。让我们一起来看看吧。

Levitating objects
空中飘物

Another popular trick is making objects levitate, with smaller objects being especially easy to “fly”. To the viewer, the levitating object may seem to defy gravity, but there’s a simple explanation – quantum physics.
一大热门魔术是让物体悬浮,小型物体尤其容易“飞起来”。在观众看来,这个悬浮的物体似乎是在对抗重力,但这个现象有着简单的原理——量子力学。

Called quantum or magnetic levitation, the trick involves magnets and freezing cold temperatures. Magicians coat an object in a layer of magnetic paint and place it on top of a superconductor cooled by liquid nitrogen. The opposing forces cause the object to float above the superconductor.
这种把戏名叫量子悬浮或磁悬浮,过程涉及到磁铁和极低的温度。魔术师给某个物体涂上一层磁性涂料,然后把物体放在用液氮冷却的超导体上。相对的力会令物体浮在超导体上方。

Vanishing liquids
液体消失

Many magicians can make liquids disappear. The explanation is simple – chemistry.
许多魔术师能让液体消失。这种魔术的原理很简单——化学。

Sodium polyacrylate, also known as “waterlock”, is a chemical compound that can absorb liquids. It’s used in everyday products such as baby diapers. What’s magical about this polymer is it can absorb 100 to 1000 times its mass in liquid.
聚丙烯酸钠,又名“水闸”,是一种能够吸收液体的化合物,常被应用于婴儿尿布等日用品。这种化合物的神奇之处在于,其可吸收自身质量100到1000倍的液体。

When a magician pours water into a cup lined with sodium polyacrylate, the water is quickly absorbed.
魔术师把水倒进内衬有聚丙烯酸钠的杯子里,水就飞速吸收了。

Burning paper
纸张燃烧

Another interesting trick is when magicians set paper alight, it remains intact. Magicians can even use money in this trick. However, there’s a scientific explanation – chemistry!
还有一个有趣的魔术:魔术师把纸点燃,纸张却仍然完好无损。魔术师甚至可以用钱来变这个魔术。然而,这种现象有一个科学原理——化学!

The item is dipped in a mixture of alcohol and water before the trick. When it’s lit on fire, the alcohol covering the paper begins to burn. Alcohol burns and evaporates at a much lower temperature than water, so the water protects the paper from burning.
变魔术前,魔术师把纸张等物体浸入酒精和水的混合物中。纸张一旦点燃,覆盖在纸上的酒精就会开始燃烧。酒精燃烧和蒸发的温度比水低得多,所以水会起保护作用,纸张就不会燃烧。

21英语网站版权说明  (Translator & Editor: Li Xinzhu AND Luo Sitian)


以上文章内容选自《21世纪学生英文报高中版》,详情请见《21世纪学生英文报高中版》高一875期
辞海拾贝
Consistent一致的 Supernatural超自然的
Rational理性的 Levitate空中飘浮
Defy违抗 Physics量子力学
Superconductor超导体 Nitrogen
Sodium polyacrylate聚丙烯酸酯 Compound化合物
Diapers尿布 Polymer聚合物
Alight燃着的 Intact完整的
Dipped Evaporates蒸发


 


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